Medieval and Renaissance Urbanism:
Duomo (Cathedral) Sant Andrea , Amalfi, Italy (1180-1276) Note: tile mosaic on the gableled front (top). The church is the wealthiest institution in Europe by the 10th century, can command labor and loyalty. The church "saves" the city after the collapse of Rome and the cities which are the seats of Bishops gain power; become market centers, etc.
Market square in front of the Medieval Cathedral of Amalfi
Santo Stefano, Bologna Note: the church dates from the fifth century (San Sepolcro in the center, a polygonal design after the Byzantine fashion); the church on the left is Santi Vitale E Agricola also from the 5th century and incorporates parts of Roman buildings; the church (Crocifisso) in the center with the exterior pulpit dates from the 11th century.
The Duomo (Cathedral) of Florence Note: the Babistry (San Giiovanni) dates from the 6th century (Byzantine style); the Campanile, begun in 1334 and the cathedral 1294-1436 (completion of the dome). At the completion of the cathedral, the interior could hold in excess of 10,000 worshipers; it was the largest domed building in the world. Funded largely by the wool guild, the building illusrates the power of the church in Medieval urban development
San Gimignano, Italy Note: the towers of the city represent the houses/quarters of the rural nobility who re-located to cities in the later middle ages. Medieval cities were often quartered with residential areas devoted to particular guilds or particular families. The nobility (landed gentry) are nearly as powerful as the church in the latter middle ages as their weatlh enhances trade, art and artisanship, all city building functions.
San Gimingnano: a former quarter Note: part of a former medieval quarter; the well in the center served the surrounding homes/business. At least two towers flank this section of the city
Ospedale degli Innocneti Brunneleschi; the first building of the Renaissance. Florence, 1419. Note its classical lines.
Ospedali degli Innocenti, detail
La Cupola del Duomo di Santa Maria del Fiore Brunneleschi (1420-1436). The dome of the Florence Cathedral describes how cities in the Rennaissance are becoming monumental. The architecture of the dome is derived from the architecture of the Roman Pantheon (see section on Rome). Hence the term Renaissance, the rebirth of classical art, architecture, thought, philosphy, science, etc.
Florence, the Roman City The Roman grid plan for Florence was re-established (restored) during the Renaissance and after by city governments. City governments gain power and control over the church and nobility, establishing their independence.These movements (first in Italy and later throughout Western Europe) lead to modern, western city governments based on the mayor/council form of governemnt and the ability of the city to police and tax its citizens separate from the state. Note the straight, intersecting streets of the old city. The square in the center was the site of the former Roman forum.
San Lorenzo, Interior detail Buildings throughout Florence and other cities are modified to become more "classical" in style. Thus the Medieval church of San Lorenzo was modified by Brunneleschi (1425-1446) to be more classical in design.
The diffusion of Renaissance architectural and planning ideology: The Dome of St. Peters, Michelangelo, completed 1574-1593; St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Sir Christopher Wren, 1675-1710; The Arch de Triomph, Paris, 1806-1808; The wide boulevards of Paris, mid 19th century; Sandusky St., Delaware, Ohio, 1808; Courthouses, Shelbyville, Ky., and Delaware, Ohio; wide streets and neo-classical architecture, Washington, D.C.; Thomas Jefferson's Library at the University of Virginia (19th century) and its copy at New Albany High School, New Albany, Ohio 2001
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